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Environmental, economical and technological aspects

Examination of the environmental map resulted in the 6 clusters listed in table 5.8 and shown on the labeled u-matrix in figure 5.8a. The biggest cluster LOW corresponded to low environmental load. Almost half of the mills were projected to this cluster. Clusters MEDIUM, SULPE, and SULPP corresponded to mills with medium level environmental load. In them at most a few components had particularly high values: the SULPE and SULPP corresponded to mills with high sulphur emission due to energy or pulp production, respectively. The latter was the second largest cluster with about 30 hits from the data set. The two last clusters corresponded to mills inducing a high environmental load.

The labeled u-matrix of the economical map is shown in figure 5.8b and the areas corresponding to labels are described in table 5.8. The low number of input vectors was a clear defect with the economical data. The map did not really form any very clear clusters, but each input vector formed an area of its own on the map. However, three areas on the map should be pointed out:

The analysis of the techlogical data resulted in the seven clusters listed in table 5.8 and shown on the u-matrix in figure 5.8c. Several global correlations can be seen from the component plane representation of the map: newsprint production, wood containing papers and mechanical pulp were highly correlated as were fluting and tissue papers, deinked and disperged waste paper usage and semi-chemical pulp. Other clusters were formed by wrapping paper mills, woodfree paper mills, cartonboard mills and linerboard mills. Most of these types can be located from the mill-technology map, too (figure 5.5). The WF cluster can be found from the top left corner of the mill-technology map and the OTHER cluster from the top right corner. WRAPP cluster is in the middle, PULP cluster on the bottom border and WC cluster in the bottom left corner.

Figure 5.8: U-matrixes and clusters of the environmental (a), economical (b) and technological (c) maps.


CLUSTER Description
Environmental data
LOW Low or at most medium emission rates.
MEDIUM Most variables medium.
SULPP Sulphur from pulp production is high. Other components are medium or low.
SULPE Sulphur from energy production and total nitroxide emission are high. Other components medium or low.
HIGHTOT High total emission, especially nitroxides.
HIGHALL All components are at least medium, most are high.
Economical data
DEBT High net-indebtness and low equity / total assets.
FIXINV High fixed investments, net indebtness and EBIT.
MEDIUM Medium values in all variables.
SALES High sales, low sales growth, low ROCE.
ROCE High ROCE, capital turnover, sales growth, low sales, EBIT fixed investments and net indebtness.
PULP&PAPER High pulp&paper industry share of sales, mostly high EBIT.
Technological data
LINERBOARD High total production, linerboard, and chemical pulp.
WF Woodfree papers and one or two coaters.
WRAPPING Wrapping paper.
PULP Chemical pulp, no paper machines.
WOODC Wood containing paper, newsprint and mechanical pulp. High total production.
CARTONBOARD Cartonboard, some mechanical pulp, a few coaters.
OTHER Fluting, tissue, other papers. Dewa, diwa and semi-chemical pulp.
Table: Clusters of the maps trained with environmental (a), economical (b) and technological (c) data of Scandinavian pulp and paper mills.

next up previous contents
Next: Combined maps Up: Scandinavian paper industry Previous: Data sets

Juha Vesanto
Tue May 27 12:40:37 EET DST 1997