There are three important aspects when examining the pulp and paper industry. The technology examined in the previous section is one and economy examined by Vanharanta et al.  is another. The third important aspect are the environmental issues: the environmental load induced by the industry. To achieve a comprehensive view of the pulp and paper industry it is important to combine the different aspects and see how they relate to each other. In this section the three areas are examined regarding Scandinavian pulp and paper industry both separately and as a whole.