SOM Toolbox Online documentation



 Add/apply/redo normalization on data structs/sets.



 This function is used to (initialize and) add, redo and apply 
 normalizations on data/map structs/sets. If a data/map struct is given, 
 the specified normalizations are added to the '.comp_norm' field of the 
 struct after ensuring that all normalizations specified therein have
 status 'done'. SOM_NORMALIZE actually uses function SOM_NORM_VARIABLE 
 to handle the normalization operations, and only handles the data 
 struct/set specific stuff itself.

 The different normalization methods are listed below. For more 
 detailed descriptions, see SOM_NORM_VARIABLE.

   method     description
   'var'      Variance is normalized to one (linear operation).
   'range'    Values are normalized between [0,1] (linear operation).
   'log'      Natural logarithm is applied to the values: 
                xnew = log(x-m+1)
              where m = min(x).
   'logistic' Logistic or softmax trasformation which scales all
              possible values between [0,1].
   'histD'    Histogram equalization, values scaled between [0,1].
   'histC'    Approximate histogram equalization with partially 
              linear operations. Values scaled between [0,1].
   'eval'     freeform operations

 To enable undoing and applying the exactly same normalization to
 other data sets, normalization information is saved into a 
 normalization struct, which has the fields: 

   .type   ; struct type, ='som_norm'
   .method ; normalization method, a string
   .params ; normalization parameters
   .status ; string: 'uninit', 'undone' or 'done'

 Normalizations are always one-variable operations. In the data and map
 structs the normalization information for each component is saved in the
 '.comp_norm' field, which is a cell array of length dim. Each cell
 contains normalizations for one vector component in a struct array of
 normalization structs. Each component may have different amounts of
 different kinds of normalizations. Typically, all normalizations are
 either 'undone' or 'done', but in special situations this may not be the
 case. The easiest way to check out the status of the normalizations is to
 use function SOM_INFO, e.g. som_info(sS,3)

Required input arguments

   sS                The data to which the normalization is applied.
            (struct) Data or map struct. Before adding any new 
                     normalizations, it is ensured that the
                     normalizations for the specified components in the
                     '.comp_norm' field have status 'done'. 
            (matrix) data matrix 

Optional input arguments

   method            The normalization(s) to add/use. If missing, 
                     or an empty variable ('' or []) is given, the 
                     normalizations in the data struct are used.
            (string) Identifier for a normalization method to be added: 
                     'var', 'range', 'log', 'logistic', 'histD' or 'histC'. The 
                     same method is applied to all specified components
                     (given in comps). The normalizations are first 
                     initialized (for each component separately, of
                     course) and then applied.
            (struct) Normalization struct, or an array of structs, which
                     is applied to all specified components. If the 
                     '.status' field of the struct(s) is 'uninit', 
                     the normalization(s) is initialized first.
                     Alternatively, the struct may be map or data struct
                     in which case its '.comp_norm' field is used
                     (see the cell array option below).
            (cell array) In practice, the '.comp_norm' field of 
                     a data/map struct. The length of the array 
                     must be equal to the dimension of the given 
                     data set (sS). Each cell contains the
                     normalization(s) for one component. Only the
                     normalizations listed in comps argument are
                     applied though.
            (cellstr array) norm and denorm operations in a cellstr array
                     which are evaluated with EVAL command with variable
                     name 'x' reserved for the variable.

   comps    (vector) The components to which the normalization(s) is
                     applied. Default is to apply to all components.

Output arguments

   sS                Modified and/or updated data.
            (struct) If a struct was given as input argument, the
                     same struct is returned with normalized data and
                     updated '.comp_norm' fields. 
            (matrix) If a matrix was given as input argument, the 
                     normalized data matrix is returned.


  To add (initialize and apply) a normalization to a data struct: 

    sS = som_normalize(sS,'var'); 

  This uses 'var'-method to all components. To add a method only to
  a few selected components, use the comps argument: 

    sS = som_normalize(sS,'log',[1 3:5]); 

  To ensure that all normalization operations have indeed been done: 

    sS = som_normalize(sS); 

  The same for only a few components: 

    sS = som_normalize(sS,'',[1 3:5]); 

  To apply the normalizations of a data struct sS to a new data set D: 

    D = som_normalize(D,sS); 
    D = som_normalize(D,sS.comp_norm); 

  To normalize a data set: 

    D = som_normalize(D,'histD'); 

  Note that in this case the normalization information is lost.

  To check out the status of normalization in a struct use SOM_INFO: 


See also

som_denormalize Undo normalizations of a data struct/set.
som_norm_variable Normalization operations for a set of scalar values.
som_info User-friendly information of SOM Toolbox structs.